Tag Archives: economy

The Future of the US Housing Market

Source: Peter DeVries, Loan Depot

This month marks the 11th anniversary of the government takeover of the mortgage giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Last Thursday, The Trump administration released its long-awaited blueprint to reform the nation’s housing finance system and privatize GSEs Fannie and Freddie.

The plan consists of a series of recommended legislative administrative reforms aimed to create a competitive mortgage market with a limited government role, protect American taxpayers against future bailouts, and help guide Americans toward the path to homeownership.

Whether the government successfully recapitalizes these agencies and ends this conservatorship or not, loanDepot is uniquely and proactively positioned with capital and a world class capital markets team to benefit from any changes that may transpire.

Home Price Trends

  • The CoreLogic HPI Forecast indicates that home prices will increase by 5.4% on a year-over-year basis from July 2019 to July 2020
  • Over a quarter of Millennials have expressed interest in buying a home in the next year
  • Connecticut and South Dakota were the only states to post declines in their year-over-year home prices

The expected reacceleration of home prices over the next year to just over 5% is caused by lower mortgage rates, making it more affordable for millennials to enter the market in the upcoming months. This increased demand for housing is the major driver for higher home prices, which we’ll likely continue to see rise for the foreseeable future.

Source: https://www.corelogic.com/insights-download/home-price-index.aspx

Home Price Trends

Mortgage rates dropped again this week! The 30-year fixed mortgage rate averaged 3.49% for the week ending September 5, a slight drop from 3.58% prior week. By contrast, mortgage rates stood at 4.54% a year ago, almost a full percentage higher than today. The historic low for 30-year rates was 3.31% in November 2012.

If you or your clients are in the market for a purchase or refinance, this fall may be a favorable time to apply for one and save on interest overtime. Don’t forget to ask me about loanDepot’s mello smartloan™ and how it could help enjoy a faster, more secure, stress-free mortgage process.

Source: http://www.freddiemac.com/pmms/

If you have any questions, contact me anytime! I can help your clients explore the best mortgage option for both purchase and refinancing.

Peter DeVries
NMLS# 1156114
Loan Consultant
1025 Black Lake Blvd SW Ste 1C
Olympia, WA 98502-1120
Office: (360) 706-6104
Cell: (360) 791-8064
My Website
Email Me

Housing market rebounds from February freeze

Source: NWMLS

KIRKLAND, Washington (April 5, 2019) – Both pending sales and new listing activity around Western
Washington surged during March as buyers, sellers, and brokers emerged from February’s record
snowfall.

Brokers added 10,516 new listings of single family homes and condos to the Northwest Multiple Listing
Service inventory last month, the highest monthly volume since August 2018. Compared to the same
month a year ago, new listings across the 23 counties in the report were down slightly (79 fewer units).
MLS members also reported 10,261 pending sales during the same timeframe, the highest number of
mutually accepted offers since July, and nearly matching the year-ago total of 10,311.

“After the housing adjustment in 2018, this year’s spring market is back to frenzied in the more affordable
and mid-price ranges,” remarked J. Lennox Scott, chairman and CEO of John L. Scott Real Estate. Noting
March is the start of the prime-time selling season, he expects this year “will be no exception.” He also
commented on improved affordability from last fall’s price adjustments in the close-in job centers of
Seattle and the Eastside. “This improved affordability, along with lower interest rates and very strong job
growth, all point us in the right direction for red-hot acceleration again this year,” Scott stated.

Year-over-year prices area-wide were up 3.5 percent, rising from $401,761 to $415,950, with most
counties reporting gains. King County was an exception. Prices there were flat (down 0.4 percent),
slipping from the year-ago median of $625,000 to last month’s figure of $622,500, but rising from
February’s price of $604,000.

Compared to February, prices rose 2.2 percent system-wide. The four-county Puget Sound region had
larger month-to-month increases, led by Kitsap County, up 5.9 percent from February. Prices in
Snohomish County jumped nearly 5.5 percent, while King County’s median prices rose more than 3
percent when comparing February to March.

Commenting on the uptick in new listings and new sales, broker Dean Rebhuhn pointed to lower
mortgage interest rates and a growing selection of properties as drivers of activity. “Well-priced
properties are selling. Buyers who are getting fully underwritten loan commitments are winning the prize
– the home,” stated Rebhuhn, the owner of Village Homes and Properties in Woodinville.

At month end, there were 12,017 active listings of single family homes and condos in the Northwest MLS
database. That represents an increase of more than 36 percent from a year ago when there were only 8,825
active listings. Inventory more than doubled in King County compared to a year ago, rising from 2,060
active listings to 4,263 at the end of March. Nine counties reported less inventory than 12 months ago.

Even with improving inventory, there is less than two months of supply overall and in seven counties,
including Pierce (1.2 months), Snohomish (1.3 months), Kitsap (1.4 months) and King (nearly 1.9
months).

Homebuyers Resuming Search Amid Improving Inventory, Attractive Terms

Source: NWMLS

KIRKLAND, Washington (February 7, 2019) – Homebuyers around Washington state are making their
way back to the market, hoping to take advantage of improving inventory, attractive interest rates, and
more approachable sellers, according to officials with Northwest Multiple Listing Service.

Northwest MLS statistics for January show year-over-year improvement in the volume of new listings
and total inventory, along with moderating selling prices. Although fewer pending sales (mutually
accepted offers) were reported than a year ago (down about 3.3 percent), January was the smallest year-
over-year decline since May 2018 when the drop was about 2.7 percent.

Commenting on the MLS statistics summarizing last month’s activity, broker Gary O’Leyar said
January’s post-holiday real estate activity doesn’t normally pick up until later in the month, but this year
the uptick began early. “January started as a bit of a surprise. Open house activity was very robust, and we
saw multiple offers in numerous instances again,” reported O’Leyar, the owner of Berkshire Hathaway
HomeServices Signature Properties in Seattle.

Brokers tallied 7,564 pending sales during January, a decline from a year-ago when they recorded 7,820
transactions.

Seven counties had increases in pending sales of single family homes and condos compared with 12
months ago, including King (up nearly 7.5 percent) and Snohomish (up 3.8 percent).

James Young, director of the Washington Center for Real Estate Research at the University of
Washington, commented on pending sales. The mixed results, including “healthy growth” in King and
Snohomish counties, “corresponds well to upward movement in mortgage applications late in December,
a leading indicator for the month to follow,” he noted, adding, “One should expect to see increased sales
activity in the coming months throughout the region if mortgage applications continue to stabilize or
increase.”

J. Lennox Scott, chairman and CEO of John L. Scott Real Estate, said buyers “came out of the
woodwork” after the holidays, eager to take advantage of better housing conditions. “Areas close to the
job centers are seeing improved affordability from spring 2018,” he said, attributing it to lower interest
rates, strong job growth, and adjusted pricing.

Scott said buyers are also attracted by expanded inventory resulting from the addition of new listings and
a higher number of unsold inventory, although he noted “inventory levels are still considered a shortage.”
Prospective buyers who sat out the second half of 2018 or were pushed to the sidelines during last year’s
heated market are finding better buying conditions, agreed Robb Wasser, branch manager at Windermere
Real Estate/East. “Interest rates are near a nine month low and buyers have a stronger platform for
negotiating, which have helped drive a 9 percent increase in pending sales of single family homes in King
County,” Wasser stated.

Attentive Home Buyers Can Find “Good Values and Receptive Sellers”

Source: NWMLS

KIRKLAND, Washington (January 7, 2019) – December brought few surprises for real estate brokers in
Western Washington with holidays, fluctuating interest rates, and volatility in consumer confidence
contributing to slower activity. Several leaders from Northwest Multiple Listing Service described 2018
as a transition year for residential real estate.

New data from the MLS show inventory in its 23-county market area dipped below two months of supply
for the first time since July. A year-over-year comparison of the number of new listings, pending sales,
and closed sales show drops overall, while prices rose from the same month a year ago.

Member-brokers added 3,631 new listings of single family homes and condominiums during December
(10.4 percent fewer than a year ago), boosting total active listings to 12,275, up from the year-ago volume
of 8,553. Pending sales were down about 8.4 percent from twelve months ago (5,677 versus 6,198), and
the volume of closed sales dropped nearly 16.6 percent (6,374 versus 7,642).

For 2018, members of Northwest MLS reported completing 92,555 transactions, which compares with
99,345 closed sales during 2017 for a drop of about 6.8 percent. The median price on last year’s closed
sales of single family homes and condominiums combined was $402,000, up $32,000 (8.64 percent) from
2017.

Commenting on inventory, declines in closed sales and the drop in month’s supply, MLS director Dick
Beeson said, “There’s lots of speculation as to the reasons why. One thing for sure: this situation can
make for a deliciously deceptive market for either buyers or sellers.” The veteran Realtor said buyers who
are paying attention will find very good values and receptive sellers.

“Timing the interest rate market is beyond the capability of most everyone. Therefore, buyers should act
now, act deliberately, act decisively, and act in conjunction with an experienced real estate professional,”
advised Beeson, the principal managing broker at RE/MAX Northwest in Gig Harbor.
Brokers said many of last month’s buyers took advantage of the shifting market.

“Buyers in December were reaping the benefits of market-weary sellers who were willing to give up part
of their bloated home equity to make a deal and move on,” reported John Deely, principal managing
broker at Coldwell Banker Bain.

James Young, director of the Washington Center for Real Estate Research at the University of
Washington, noted last month was a very different December from a year ago. “While active listings are
up significantly (43.5 percent) from a year ago, interest rates have also gone up by over 80 basis points,
meaning the typical mortgage repayment has increased by about 10 percent for those looking to buy. That
limits spending power and stops buyers from bidding up for the house they want rather than the house
they can afford.”

Slower Market Means Homebuyers Have “Newfound ability to negotiate”

SOURCE: NWMLS

KIRKLAND, Washington (November 6, 2018) – Seven months of steadily rising housing inventory
reversed course in October when Northwest Multiple Listing Service brokers added the fewest new
listings since February, according to a new report. MLS members believe the onset of wintry weather and
transition to the holiday season are factors, but suggested the slower pace also signals improving
conditions for house-hunters.

“After months of inventory growth that more than quadrupled the number of homes buyers have to
choose from, things got back on a seasonal track with new listings and total supply falling in October,”
said Robert Wasser, a director with Northwest MLS, when comparing those metrics with September.
“Buyers are catching on to their newfound ability to negotiate. For the first time since 2012, closed sales
system-wide rose from September to October,” noted Wasser, a branch manager with Windermere Real
Estate in Bellevue.

Northwest MLS members added 8,865 new listings to inventory last month in the 23 counties it
encompasses, down from September’s volume of 10,458, but up 4.7 percent from the year-ago total of
8,466 new listings. Compared to September, last month’s number of total active listings shrunk nearly 6.7
percent, but year-over-year inventory rose 33.2 percent, from 13,680 to 18,223 offerings.

Brokers generally welcomed the bump-up in inventory.

Real estate veteran Mike Grady, the president and COO of Coldwell Banker Bain, commented on the
current “win-win” conditions. “We’re entering that time of year when historically the market slows a bit
as we head into the holidays. Buyers continue to see an improving market compared to last year with the
inventory increasingly to 2.4 months of supply in King County, compared to the year-ago figure of less
than a month (0.98),” he stated.

Area-wide there is nearly 2.3 months of inventory, slipping from more than 2.5 months in September, and
improving on the year-ago figure of about 1.5 months of supply.

The year-over-year gains in supply, while notable, are still “way off from a balanced market that provides
five to six months of inventory,” Grady remarked, adding, “Contrary to recent media reports, the sky is
not falling,” he emphasized, pointing to rising prices and strong jobs reports as factors for a positive
outlook. (The State Employment Security Department reported Washington gained 4,500 jobs in
September.)

“Home prices in King County are up nearly 8.6 percent year over year, so we’re still experiencing
significant appreciation,” Grady stated. Given continued reports of hiring by companies in the Puget
Sound region and recent increases in inventory, he expects homebuyers will continue entering the market,
adding, “And sellers can still expect to get good prices — all this without the frenzy. A win-win,” he
proclaimed.

Balance “Finally returning” to Housing Market as Buyers Welcome More Choices, Moderating Prices

Source: NWMLS

KIRKLAND, Washington (October 4, 2018) – Housing inventory continued to improve during September
while the pace of sales slowed in many counties served by Northwest Multiple Listing Service. “Balance is
finally returning to the market, and with it, slowing home price growth,” stated OB Jacobi, president of
Windermere Real Estate.

A new report from Northwest MLS shows double-digit increases in inventory in several of the 23 counties it
serves, led by a 78 percent year-over-year gain in King County. Despite improving selection in the central
Puget Sound region, a dozen counties reported drops in the number of active listings compared to last year.

System-wide, the month ended with 2.56 months of supply of single family homes and condos, well below
the 4-to-6 months analysts use as an indicator of a balanced market between sellers and buyers. The current
level is the highest since February 2015 when member-brokers reported 3.56 months of inventory. In King
County, supply exceeded two months for the first time since January 2015.

Condo inventory remains sparse, with only 0.34 months of supply area wide, despite improving inventory (up
nearly 70 percent from a year ago). The shortage is expected to ease as construction progresses on several
recently-announced high-rise projects.

Brokers added 10,458 new listings of single family homes and condos to the MLS database during
September, slightly more than the year-ago figure of 10,120. At month end, buyers could choose from 19,526
listings, a 22.9 percent improvement from twelve months ago when selection totaled 15,888 listings.

Commenting on the wider selection, Mike Grady said buyers “are at long last now seeing properties that stay
on the market longer.” Listings that are priced appropriately, “and not based on the feverish market we saw
just a few months ago are still selling quickly, and home prices are still showing 8 percent appreciation year-
over-year – more than double the rate of inflation,” added Grady, the president and COO of Coldwell Banker
Bain.

With improving inventory, some brokers suggest the market may be showing signs of pausing, if not
softening. A market shift may be under way, but they believe activity will stay strong.

J. Lennox Scott, chairman and CEO of John L. Scott Real Estate, encouraged would-be buyers to “put extra
focus on October,” which he described as the last great month for new listings until March 2019. “Over the
winter, new monthly resale listings will lower by approximately 50 percent compared to summer months.” He
also noted interest rates, currently in the upper 4 percent, are projected to rise in the coming months.

“This is a more traditional yearly market cycle taking the place of the unusually overheated real estate market
of the past several years,” said John Deely, principal managing broker at Coldwell Banker Bain.

A Decade Low in Housing Affordability Won’t Kill the Real Estate Boom

Source: Dr. Steve Sjuggerud, Stansberry Research

I’ve spent years urging anyone who would listen to buy a house…

Folks didn’t want to hear that story back in 2011, when I first began pounding the table. Investors were scared. Nobody wanted to buy.

That’s why housing was such a great deal, though. It was dirt-cheap and hitting all-time levels of affordability.

Plenty has changed since then…

U.S. home prices have steadily climbed, and housing affordability has fallen as a result.

Today, housing affordability is at a decade low. But as I’ll show, that doesn’t mean the boom is dead.

Let me explain…

The idea of housing affordability is simple. When someone buys a home, he doesn’t worry so much about the purchase price… He worries about the monthly payment. If he can afford the payment, he can afford the house.

The monthly payment includes a few numbers… namely the home’s price and the interest rate. Compare that with the person’s income, and you know how affordable (or not) a home would be.

Importantly, these numbers are similar for a lot of folks. So the National Association of Realtors uses median home prices, median income, and mortgage rates to build an overall measure of housing affordability in America.

This indicator tells us if housing is cheap, expensive, or somewhere in between.

Again, things have changed since I first began urging readers to buy real estate. Housing affordability is now at a 10-year low. Take a look…

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A high affordability number indicates housing is cheap… signaling a great time to buy. A low number indicates an expensive market, where folks will have to stretch to buy.

You can see that housing is getting less affordable. It recently fell to affordability levels not seen since 2008. But that doesn’t tell the full story.

Despite a decade low for affordability, we’re now right at the long-term average. Check it out…

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It’s true that the easy money in real estate might be behind us. But affordability hasn’t completely dried up.

We are clearly in the late innings of this boom. The great deals are getting harder to find, but certain markets still have plenty of value remaining.

I’ve personally put a large chunk of my net worth into Florida real estate. I’ve sold some of those properties for big profits… but I’ve been able to find new deals too.

So while affordability is down, I remain bullish on U.S. housing. We’re still near the long-term average for affordability in U.S. housing. And folks can still make money in U.S. real estate.

If you’re looking to put money to work, buying a house is still a solid deal today.

Improving Supply Helps Slow Escalating Home Prices in Western Washington

SOURCE: NWMLS

KIRKLAND, Washington (September 7, 2018) – House-hunters in Western Washington can choose from
the largest supply of homes in three years, and they are facing fewer bidding wars, according to officials
from Northwest Multiple Listing Service.

New statistics from the MLS show prices appear to be moderating (up about 6.7 percent overall), but
brokers say they are not bracing for a bubble, or even anticipating a quick shift to a buyers’ market.

“There have been incremental increases in listing inventory the past few months,” noted Gary O’Leyar, the
designated broker/owner at Berkshire Hathaway HomeServices Signature Properties, but, he added, “By no
means have inventory levels reached a point that is deemed to be a balanced market.”

Area-wide, the number of active listings of single family homes and condos (combined) rose 16.2 percent,
but 16 counties reported year-over-year drops in inventory; of those, nine had double-digit decreases from
twelve months ago. At month end there were 18,580 active listings, the highest level since September 2015
when buyers could choose from 19,724 listings. Compared to July, inventory was up nearly 11 percent.

The latest numbers from Northwest MLS show wide-ranging changes in the volume of active listings when
comparing the 23 counties in the report. In Clark County, inventory doubled from a year ago to lead the list
based on percentage gains. King County was runner-up with a 74.3 percent increase, rising from 3,329
active listings a year ago to 5,803 at the end of August.

System-wide there is about two months of supply, but less than that in the four-county Puget Sound region
– well below the “balanced market” range of four-to-six months.

Supply was replenished in part by the addition of 11,994 new listings during the month, up slightly from the
year-ago total of 11,781.

A slower pace of sales also contributed to the boost in supply. Brokers reported 10,109 mutually accepted
offers last month, a drop of 14.8 percent from a year ago when they tallied 11,867 pending sales.

“The Puget Sound residential housing market remains positive, though the market has transitioned from a
frenzied state to one of strong sales activity,” remarked J. Lennox Scott, chairman and CEO of John L. Scott
Real Estate. “We are seeing stability in the affordable and mid-price ranges in all market areas,” he said,
citing “one of the best job growth markets in the nation” and favorable interest rates as contributing factors.

George Moorhead, designated broker at Bentley Properties, commented on buyers “still sitting on the
sidelines despite clear indicators.” He believes, “This is the best time in three years to be aggressive in the
marketplace” given rising inventory, a significant increase in the number of cancelled and expired listings,
and more incentives being offered by builders. “We are now seeing price reductions in new home
communities as builders try to move inventory of completed homes,” he noted.

Is the Housing Market Normalizing? One Sign the Tide’s Turning

Source: Suzanne De Vita RISMedia

 

With demand strong and supply weak, the housing market is overwhelmingly partial to sellers. The average homeowner is profiting $40,000 at resale (with decade-high returns in 2017), and higher in the hottest markets, where they’re attracting multiple offers in record time.

Now, there’s an early indicator that the market may shift. At the start of summer, 14.2 percent of listings nationwide had their prices reduced, according to a new report by Zillow. At the beginning of the year, 13 percent had cuts, and at the close of 2016, 11.7 percent were lowered. The increase between January and June is the largest on record in the report, and doubled the jump in the same six months in 2017.

The bigger bounds are generally on higher-priced properties, and on the West Coast, the report shows. Of costlier listings, 16.2 percent have been slashed since the start of the year—up 0.9 percent. By comparison, 11.2 of lower-priced properties have been reduced—down 0.1 percent. The disparity illustrates the immense interest in more practically priced properties, which are in scarcer supply.

The amount of discounted homes increased the most in San Diego, up 7.7 percent in the last six months, to 20 percent. The amount climbed in Denver, Las Vegas, Orlando, Portland, Ore., Sacramento and Seattle, as well. On the flip side, the share shrank in Philadelphia, from 17.2 percent to 16.2 percent, as well as in Indianapolis, Pittsburgh and San Antonio.

Is the change a change in dynamic? According to Aaron Terrazas, senior economist at Zillow, the concessions could be a premature sign of a swing, but not yet.

“The housing market has tilted sharply in favor of sellers over the past two years, but there are very early preliminary signs that the winds may be starting to shift ever so slightly,” says Terrazas. “A rising share of on-market listings are seeing price cuts, though these price cuts are concentrated at the most expensive price points and primarily in markets that have seen outsized price gains in recent years.

“It’s far too soon to call this a buyer’s market,” Terrazas says. “Home values are still expected to appreciate at double their historic rate over the next 12 months, but the frenetic pace of the housing market over the past few years is starting to return toward a more normal trend.”

For more information, please visit www.zillow.com.

The Biggest Homeownership Hurdles for Millennials

Source: Liz Dominguez-RISMedia

Millennials should be making a sizable stamp in homeownership, but they have been largely absent from the housing space. Why is it that the largest generation in U.S. history isn’t participating in real estate as heavily as its predecessors? There are many difficulties standing in their way, according to new research.

A recent report by the Urban Institute, “Millennial Homeownership: Why Is It So Low, and How Can We Increase It?” delves deeper into the generational home-buying gap to assess the factors that are holding millennials back from their homeownership goals. When looking at the 25-34 age group, millennials are behind Gen Xers and baby boomers in homeownership rates by 8-9 percentage points, according to the report. When comparing overall homeownership rates in 2015, millennials were behind baby boomers by 42.8 percent and Gen Xers by 28.2 percent.

While factors such as parental wealth and creditworthiness play a role, there are more overarching influences on the millennial homeownership rate. The biggest obstacles?

Settling down is being pushed further out.
Millennials are delaying major life events such as marriage and childbearing. These milestones are typically associated with higher homeownership rates; in fact, the possibility of owning a home increases by 17.9 and 6.2 percentage points, respectively, for those who are married or have children.

According to the 2015 American Community Survey by the U.S. Census Bureau, 40 percent of millennials are married. This is 7.5 percent lower than the 2000 rate for similar age groups, and 13.8 percent lower than the 1990 rate. The average marriage age is being pushed out further out: Between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of 18- to 34-year-olds who never married increased by nearly 20 points to 53.9 percent. Many millennials are also waiting longer to have children. Between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of married households with children (with a household head age group of 18-34) decreased from 36.9 percent to 25.7 percent.

High student loan debt is tightening millennials’ wallets.
When compared to preceding generations, millennials are more likely to pursue higher education. According to 2015 rates, 65.8 percent of millennial household heads received some level of college education, a 10.1 percentage point increase from 1990 and a 13.3 point increase from 2000.

However, rising education costs have far exceeded income increases, creating a debt challenge. An estimated 36 percent of millennials have student loan debt, compared to 18 percent of Gen Xers and 4.1 percent of baby boomers.

Data from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York show that a 25-year-old’s average education debt has increased from $4,516 in 2003 to $10,033 in 2015. These high levels of debt are proving to be homeownership barriers for millennials who are struggling to save for a down payment while paying off their loans. They also increase debt-to-income ratios, potentially making it more difficult for them to obtain a mortgage.

Exorbitant home values are pricing them out of homeownership.
Members of the millennial generation, especially those with higher levels of education, typically flock to more populous locations, such as New York City and San Francisco, in search of high-skilled cities with employment opportunities and urban amenities. These areas tend to be more expensive, with low housing elasticity due to a shortage of new construction for starter homes, the report states.

Additionally, many millennials are rent-burdened, paying more than 30 percent of their income toward rent, leaving them less room in their budget to save for a down payment. According to research by the Pew Charitable Trust, the transition to homeownership is slower for rent-burdened individuals. The demand and pricing for rental housing dramatically increased after the financial crisis.

The racial divide remains a far-reaching challenge.
Millennials are the most racially and ethnically diverse generation. The increasing share of minority members, and the added home-buying challenges they experience, is lowering millennial homeownership rates on average, cites the report. According to 2015 statistics, white households represent the highest share of homeowners, making up 39.6 percent of all households. Meanwhile, the Hispanic homeownership rate decreased to 24.6 in 2015, and the black homeownership rate has been in continuous decline since 2000, sitting at 13.4 percent in 2015. The Asian household rate has fluctuated, dropping between 1990 and 2000 from 30.6 to 26.6 percent, before increasing to 27.2 percent in 2015.

How can the industry overcome these challenges?
According to the report, many potential homebuyers are not aware of down payment assistance, especially first-time buyers. The first step to correcting this problem? Increasing awareness of government-sponsored programs through financial education as part of a high school or college curriculum.

Additionally, the Urban Institutes proposes a streamlined and tech-centered mortgage application that shortens the process and more thoroughly assesses risk. The underwriting process should also be revised to include factors not typically within a credit score assessment, such as rental payment history, in order to assist consumers with low credit or a lack of credit history. Other proposed solutions take the form of revised student loan debt reporting, changes to land-use and zoning regulations, and reduced racial and ethnic disparities.